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allege/[ə'ledʒ]/ vt. 宣称, 主张, 提出, 断言 ...

中高级口译应试技巧

本文属阅读资料
中高级口译应试技巧(连载五)


第三章 各类题型精析

(该部分是从历届考题中找出考生和辅导班学员在做听力、听力翻译、阅读、笔译以及口译各题型中最容易出错的典型例句进行精析,以供考生在考前复习时参考。)
考题题型构成:
英语高级口译资格证书考试分为第一阶段考试和第二阶段考试。第一阶段考试为笔试,试卷题型包括以下几种类型:
第一部分(Section l):听力测试(包括听写和听力理解)(Part A:Spot Dictation;Part B:
Listening Comprehension)(30minutes);
第二部分(Section2):阅读测试(多项选择题)(Reading Test)(30minutes);
第三部分(Section 3):翻译测试(英译汉)(Translation Test)(30minutes);
第四部分(Section4):听力测试(笔记及填空和听译)(Part A:Note-taking and
Gap-filling;Part B:Listening and Translation)(30minutes);
第五部分(Section5):阅读测试(简答题)(Reading Test)(30minutes);
第六部分(Section6):翻译测试(汉译英)(Translation Test)(30minutes)。
考生通过第一阶段考试后,方可参加第二阶段考试。
第二阶段考试为口试,包括口语和口译。
口语试卷有A卷或B卷之分,但题型一样,难易程度相当。
口译试卷(1NTERPRETATIONSECTION)也有A卷或B卷之分。A卷或B卷均包括Part A(two English
passages) and Part B (two Chinese passages)。

第一节 听力精析(听写、听力理解)
该部分(Section 1)为听力测试,分为Part A:Spot Dictation和Part B:Listening
Comprehension。Part A and Part B要求考生在30分钟内完成。题目要求如下:
SECTION l:LISTENINGTEST(30minutes)
I.Part A:Spot Dictation
Direction: In this part of the test, you will hear a passage and
read the same passage with blanks in it. Fill in each of the blanks
with the word or words you have heard on the tape. Write your answer
in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET. Remember you will
hear the passage ONLY ONCE.
该部分(Part A)为听写填空题(Spot
Dictation)。该部分题材广泛,体裁多样。试题中有20处标号的空缺部分需要考生填写。空缺部分多为2—4个词组成的短语或习惯用语。听写内容播放后有3-5分钟间隙供考生填写。听写文字内容长度为300—400个词。(中级口译为250—350个词)
只念一遍,语速为每分钟100词左右。考生在听写开始前可提前浏览文章,做到心中有数,有的放矢。这样有助于考生听力理解。现就一听力实考题进行分析。
Today I'm going to consider very briefly a problem concerned with
the competition for land use, that is, whether crops should be used
to produce food or should be used to ___(1) and in considering this
problem I will look at ___ (2): the historical background to the
problem, the economics involved in the competition for land use,
some examples, and ___ (3) to a potential problem.
In considering the historical background we should ___ (4) of the
1970s due to the rapid trend in increasing oil prices. Many
countries have looked for ___ (5) to make them independent of other
countries' ___ (6). Examples of alternative energy sources include
such things as solar power, the ___ (7), and also the production of
biogas. Biogas is methane which is produced from ___ (8).
A particularly interesting possibility for many developing countries
has been the ___ (9) to alcohol. This is interesting because in many
developing countries there is a ___ (10) and at the same time a
small industrial sector and thus the ___ (11) the agricultural
sector to produce fuel is of interest to those countries.
Research is going on ___ (12), for example, from sugar and there are
two main economic reasons for this. First of all, the world price of
sugar ___ (13) or the world price of sugar has fallen in very real
terms ___ (14). This has caused a problem for those economics which
are ___ (15) their sugar production, as it gives them an alternative
possibility for ___ (16). And secondly sugar is the most efficient
source of alcohol; therefore, it is ___ (17) to make fuel. by,
distilling alcohol from it.
In addition to sugar there are ___ (18) that can be used to make
alcohol, for example, ___ (19) such plants as the cassava plant and
the sweet potato are good sources from which alcohol can be made and
in non-tropical countries you have such things as ___ (20).
答案:
1. produce fuel 2. four main areas
3. a possible solution 4. look at the oil crisis
5. alternative energy sources 6. fossil fuels
7. harnessing of wind and waves 8. human and animal waste
9. conversion of plant material 10. a large agriculture sector
11. possibility of using 12. in the production of alcohol
13. has fallen dramatically 14. in the last decade
15. dependent on 16. using their sugar
17. relatively economical 18. other starchy plants
19. in tropical countries 20. corn and sugar beet
精析:
考生在快速预览该篇文章后,尤其是在预览主题句后,便对其含义有总体印象,它是关于the competition for land
use的短文。与此同时,考生可对部分填空题目作出大致的推断。这样,考生在听的同时,将预测信息与听到信息有机结合起来,便可作出正确判断。若遇同音词可以根据语义和语法规则进行判断。最后,若有个别词或短语尚未听懂,考生可根据文章上下文的连贯性和平行性(coherence
and parallel),语义的(semantic)一致性(consistency),以及语法规则(grammatical
rule)的准确性(accuracy)来猜词悟意,直至篇章完善。
1)由主题句猜测篇章大意也必不可少。该篇文章开头句就提到:“Today I’m going to consider very
briefly a problem concemed with the competition for land use,that
is,whether crops should be used to produce food or should used to___
(1)and...”。由此看出,本文是讲述作者对土地使用目的的研究,庄稼是用来生产食物,还是用来生产燃料。文章第二、第三、第四和第五自然段是对主题的展开论述。由第二自然段的首句“In
considering the historical background we should ___(4)of the l970s
due to the rapid trend in increasing oil
prices.”,便可知该段是说“能源危机的历史状况”。由第三自然段的首句“Aparticularly interesting
possibility for many developing countries has been the__ (9)to
alcohol.”,便可知该段是说“发展中国家利用农业资源的状况”。由第四自然段的首句“Research is。going on
___(12),for example,from sugar and there two main economic reasons
for this.”便可知该段是说“农业资源生产的经济原因”的情况。最后一段,由“In addition to sugar there
are____(18)that can be used to make alcohol,...”中的“In addition
to”,考生便可推断出作者又进一步论证除蔗糖以外的情况。掌握中心是考生第一关键。
2)预测信息,猜词悟意。考生在对文章有了总体印象后,可在脑海中预测一些信息,同时可根据上下文的连贯性猜词悟意。,如“Today I’m
going to consider very brieflv a problem
concerned with the competition for land use;that is,whether crops
should be used to produce food or should be used to ___
(1)..”由句中“whether crops should be used to produce
food'’,考生便可猜出(1)这一空格会出现平行的“produce"一词。当考生听音时会有的放矢,很容易就会听出这一信息"produce
fuel"。万一考生在听音时没有听清“fuel'’一词,考生可根据下文关于能源的内容,进行猜测。
3)遵循语法,完善句子。当考生对一些音素可能听得不很清楚时,如“...and in considering this problem I
will look at___(2):”句中的第(2)空格"four main
areas"究竟是“for"还是“four”,可根据语法知识和语义内容作出正确判断。该句的下半句“...the historical
background to the problem,the economics involved in the competition
for land US,some examples,and__(3)to a potential
problem.”正好反映了4个主要方面,因此该词
应该是“four"。若出现如单词是否加s,加ing之类的情况,考生没听清楚,此时,可根据语法的准确性来作出判断。例如“In
addition to sugar there are __ (18)that can be used to make
alcohol,...”。句中出现了"there
are",后面的名词肯定是复数形式,那么就不会是“plant"而是“plants"指各种各样的植物。再如,“Examples of
alternative energy sources include such things as solar power,the
___
(7),...”,在第(7)空格前是定冠词,那么要添的空白肯定应该是名词,但“harness"一词虽可作名词用,但作名词时作“马具,系在身上的绳子,甲胄”解,没有“利用(河流、瀑布、风浪等)产生动力”的意思,所以在此应该用动名词的形式“harnessing'’,整个空为“harnessing
of wind and waves"。
另外,道正认为,考生应对填空词汇的种类特征进行研究,这一部分经研究共有27种类型,请考生可参考道正学校自编《口译证书Spot
Dictation》教材。
考生做该部分试题的一般原则是:预览全文—掌握大意—预测信息—猜词悟意—辨听信息—快速反应—获取信息—遵循语法—完善全文。
Ⅱ.PartB:Listening Comprehension
该部分由4篇听音对话或听音篇章组成。对话部分的内容题材与日常生活、工作或学习有关。讲话及讲座的内容涉及科普或社会专题。该部分不仅考核考生理解能力,而且还有记忆能力、思维能力。根据所讲技巧,有必要先看后听,掌握中心议题。一般来说,对话的提问顺序是与对话本身的概念递进和逻辑发展齐头并进的。每篇有5个选择题,共20道题组成。要求考生从四个选择项中选出最贴近听音原文的答案。现从历届试题中选出一篇对话加以精析。
Questions 1 to 5 are based on the following conversation
1. (A) Blue.
(B) Green.
(C) Red.
(D) Yellow.
2. (A)"Swimming."
(B) "Wills's Woodbines."
(C) A petrol company badge.
(D) "Tidy."
3. (A) In the early 190Os.
(B) In the early 1950s.
(C) Around 1945.
(D) After 1955.
4. (A) "Smoked by Millions."
(B) "Bought by Millions."
(C) "Love for Humankind."
(D) "I've been to Disneyland."
5. (A) Two.
(B) Three.
(C) Four.
(D) Five.
听力原文
Directions: In this part of the test there will be some short talks
and conversations. After each one, you will be asked some questions.
The talks, conversations and questions will be spoken only once. Now
listen carefidly and choose the right answer to each question you
have heard and write the letter of the answer you have chosen in the
corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET. Now let's begin Part B
with Listening Comprehension.
Questions 1 to 5 are based on the following conversation
F: Er ... roughly, Mr. Andrew Simpson, when did you begin collecting
badges?
M: At my primary school, I think. The teachers used to give out
badges to pupils who were.
particularly good at certain things. So I got a little blue badge
with the word "swimming" on
it, and then another one I remember---it was green--which had the
word "Tidy" on it! Ha!
F: And have you still got those badges in your collection?
M: No . . . well, I've got the swimming badge, but I think I was so
untidy that I must have lost the tidy badge years ago!
F: And you started collecting badges, then, from that, the age of
about nine7
M: Er, yeah, I guess so ... eight or nine or so. That's right. In
those days--we're talking about the early fifties--there weren't so
many cars around as there are today. So filling stations didn't have
so many customers. So the petrol companies used to give out badges.
I suppose they thought that kids whose parents had a car would keep
asking them to go to a particular filling station so that they could
get another free badge. My dad bought our first car in 1954. I think
it was--a black Ford Popular--and every time I went out with him in
it I used to ask him to go to a different petrol station so that I
could add more to my growing badge collection. Actually, he was a
very shy man, my father, and I'm sure he didn't like asking for free
things ...
F: SO petrol company badges were the first ones in your collection,
weren't they?
M: After "swimming" and "tidy", yeah... But soon all sorts of
companies started making badges to advertise their products, even
cigarette companies. I've got one in my collection for Wills's
Woodbines--they were the cheapest cigarettes in those days--and on
the badge, at the bottom, it says, "Smoked by Millions"--no health
warnings in those days...
F: How did you start collecting foreign badges?
M: I started travelling! Actually, I have to say that as a teenager
I rather lost interest in badges and in fact I threw away a lot ...
or, er lost quite a lot ... ones which would be rather valuable
today. But when I left university I got a job in Austria and
whenever I had a holiday, I used to take cheap trips to countries in
Eastern Europe. Badges are very popular there and I soon started
collecting again. I've got some really beautiful badges from
Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union, and some lovely ones from
Yugoslavia, too.
F: Do people in Eastern Europe wear badges or do they just collect
them?
M: Oh, they wear them just like we do.
F: Why do you think people do wear badges?

M: Well, I think there are probably three main reasons. I 'think
some people wear them to show that they belong to something. You
know, like a group or a club or an association of some sort ... like
the Rotary Club or a trade union. And then I think people wear
badges for they have something to say to the world. To tell people
what they think--political or religious badges-- which show what
kind of person the wearer is, what he or she believes in, what they
want to me" communicate ... or badges which say things like, er,
"Please don't smoke near or "I'm a vegetarian". I think that sort of
badge is very popular these days.
F: You said you thought there were three main reasons why people
wear badges ...
M: Oh, yes. Well, the third reason, I think, is to show everyone
else where you've been ... you know, badges which say things like
"I've been to Disneyland". A lot of people put stickers like that on
their cars, too. There are other reasons, of course but I think
they're the main ones.
Question No. 1 What colour was the "Tidy" badge?
Question No. 2 Which badge does Andrew Simpson think he has lost?
Question No. 3 When do you think Andrew Simpson was born?
Question No. 4 What is the slogan on the Wills's Woodbines badge?
Question No. 5 How many main reasons are given by Andrew Simpson for
people to wear badges?
精析:
从这组选择题系列以及对话的开始,考生可以知道:这是一篇有关徽章搜集和使用的对话。
Question No.1 What colour was the"Tidy"badge?
根据提问的一般原则:提问顺序和情节发展是平行进行的,所以,该答案一定在该篇对话的开始部分。听音原文中有这样一句话“...and then
another one I remember—it was green—which had the word "Tidy on
it!Ha!",据此,考生可以断定the“Tidy”badge的颜色为绿色。只有答案(B)符合题意,所以正确答案为(B)。考生在做此题时应注意听,切莫与“So
I got a little blue badge with the word‘swimming’on it”中的“blue'’相混淆。
Question NO.2 Which badge does Andrew Simpson think he has lost?
当考生听到"I've got the swimming badge,but I think I Was so untidy that I
must have lost the tidy badge years ago!"便可知道Andrew Simpson所丢失的是“the
tidy badge"。(D)项符合题意,为正确答案。听音时,考生同样应该注意不要将“the tidy badge'’混淆为“the
swimming badge"。
Question NO.3 When do you think Andrew Simpson was born?
在对话中,并没有直接谈到Andrew Simpson是何时出生的,但是通过对话,考生可以计算出他大致的出生时间。
F: Andyou started collecting badges,then,from that,the age of about
nine?
M: Er,yeah,I guess so...eight or nine or so.That's right.In those
days—we're talking about the early fifties—there weren't so many
cars around as there are today.
通过这两句对话,我们可以知道"...we're talking about the early
fifties"是发生在50年代早期,当时他八九岁左右,此时开始搜集徽章,这样就可以计算出他的出生大约是在1945年左右。因此,只有选项(C)Around
l945.符合题意。
Question No.4 What is the slogan on the Wills's Woodbines badge?
该题答案较为明显,比较容易听出。当考生听到“I've got one in my collection for Wills's
Woodbines--they were the cheapest cigarettes in those days--and on
the badge,at the bottom,it says,“Smoked by Millions"—no health
warnings in those days...”时,“Smoked by
Millions"就很容易印在脑海中。四个选项中,(A)项为正确答案。
Question NO.5 How many main reasons are given by Andrew Simpson for
people to wear badges?该问题体现在对话中也是直问直答。其中对话为:
F:Why do you think people do wear badges?
M:Well,I think there are probably three main reasons.
显然,人们戴徽章有3个主要方面的原因。因此答案(B)为正确答案。

该部分为高级口译第一阶段测试中的第二部分,即:SECTION 2:Reading
Test。该部分考试时间为30分钟。阅读材料均选自英语原版材料,共4篇。内容及题材具有多样性、普遍性和社会性。要求考生应有一定的词汇量,以及阅读理解技能,如概括中心思想能力,推理与释义能力;另外,还应有与英语国家社会和文化相关的知识面。现就历届考题中的一篇进行精析。

SECTION 2: READING TEST (30 minutes)
Directions: In this section you will read several passages. Each one
is followed by several questions about it. You are to choose ONE
best answer, (A), (B), (C) or (D) to each question. Answer all the
questions following each passage on the basis of what is stated or
implied in that passage and write the letter of the answer of the
answer you have chosen in the corresponding space in your ANSWER
BOOKLET.

Questions 1 ~ 5 are based on the following passage
British Aerospace is planning to set up its own university because
it cannot recruit the skilled graduates it needs from existing
institutions.
BAe has a team drafting a range of options for the university, which
would award its own degrees. Work on the scheme is expected to start
in the next few months.
Sir Richard Evans, chief executive of British Aerospace, has already
launched a recruiting drive for engineers on the Continent because
of a shortage of high-calibre domestic candidates. Advertising
campaigns in France, Germany and other European countries will seek
to attract students expecting to graduate in the summer.
Other engineering employers are expected to follow suit. The move to
take on overseas graduates comes after BAe left one in five of its
graduate places unfilled last year, blaming shortcomings in the
education system.
If the scheme is approved, BAe will either build a full university
or incorporate sites at its main research and manufacturing centres
at Famborough, Surrey, and Warton, Lancashire. The company would
have to convince the education authorities that the university had
sufficient teaching capacity and autonomy for it to be allowed to
award degrees. BAe said it was setting up its own education system
and recruiting staff abroad because "there is a shortage of
engineering graduates, beth in terms of quantity and quality".
The Engineering Employers' Federation said that skill shortages were
an urgent problem. Rolls- Royce, another large engineering employer,
said there was a general skill shortage, although it had filled its
graduate quota. Rolls will soon recruit internationally to reflect
its expanding international operations.
Engineering's failure to attract students has been attributed to
poor pay and long-term prospects, given the decline in British
manufacturing. BAe would not reveal how much it pays graduates, but
Lucas Variety, a large engineering employer, paid a starting salary
of ~ 14,200 last year. That compares with an average graduate
starting salary of ~ 15, 300, according to Income Data Services.
British universities have found it increasingly difficult to recruit
well-qualified undergraduates. Even Oxford and Cambridge fail to
meet their quotas in many engineering subjects.
Alan Smithers, whose Centre for Education and Employment Research,
at Bmnel University, produced a report on the supply of science and
engineering graduates early this year, said that the discipline had
been over expanded. "There is now a lack of quality to withstand
competition in an increasingly international sphere. Companies go
where they can find the best candidates."
Engineering docs not enjoy the high status in Britain that it
occupies in other parts of the world. Courses in other parts of
Europe and the Far East command among the highest entry requirements
of all degree subjects and take five years, rather than the norm of
three in Britain.
1. British Aerospace is recruiting engineers on the Continent __
(A) as the pay for them can be much lower
(B) as there are not enough well, qualified candidates at home
(C) to compete with France, Germany and other European countries
(D) to set up a university of its own
2. In the passage, the expression "to follow suit" in the sentence
"Other engineering employers are expected to follow suit" (para. 4)
can best be paraphrased as __
(A) to join BAe in its recruiting scheme
(B) to take the unanimous action
(C) to recruit graduates overseas
(D) to establish universities
3. Which of the following is NOT the reason that engineering courses
fail to attract British students?
(A) The decline of British manufacturing industry.
(B) The recruitment of engineers abroad.
(C) The lower pay for engineering graduates.
(D) The long and slow process of success and promotion after
graduation.
4. "Oxford" and "Cambridge" are mentioned in the passage to show
that __
(A) they are the world famous universities
(B) they are not cooperating with British Aerospace
(C) they are reforming the engineering education
(D) they can not fulfil their recruitment quotas in engineering
5. Which of the following best summarizes the main idea of the
passage?
(A) There should be further cooperation between British Aerospace
and Higher Institutions.
(B) Shortage of engineers leads BAe to plan its own university.
(C) British Higher Education has recently been reevaluated.
(D) British Engineering education is severely criticized for its
lack of quality.
精析:
1.原题所问的是英国航空航天局正在欧洲大陆招工程师是因为什么?从原文中有关部分"Sir Richard Evans,chief
executive of British Aerospace,has already launched a recruiting
drive for engineers on the Continent because of a shortage of
high-calibre domestic
candidates.”,可以看出,是因为国内缺乏有资格的人员。(A)项是说对他们所付的工资可以更低,(C)项为可以同法国、德国以及其他欧洲国家竞争,(D)项为设立自己的大学,这些选项均不符合题意,因此只有B因为国内没有足够的具有资格的候选人”是正确的。正确答案为(B)。
2.该句为具体短语和句子理解题。要求考生理解“to follow suit'’这一短语在句子“Other engineering
employers are expected to follow
suit"中的含意;但要理解这一含意,又必须根据上文和下句(para.4)的含意才能作出判断。上文是说由于英国国内缺乏具有资格的工程师,因此要在海外(欧洲大陆)招聘毕业生,下旬又说“The
move to take on overseas graduates comes after BAe left one in five
of its graduate places unfilled last year,blaming shortcomings in
the education system.”,所以"to follow suit'’意为“to recruit graduates
overseas,”。(C)项为正确答案。
3.英国工程学课程不能吸引英国学生有各种各样的原因。题目所问为否定项,哪一个不是这一原因。其中,(A)项为英国制造业的衰落,(C)项为工程毕业生薪水更低,(D)为毕业后加官晋级、获得成功是一个漫长的过程,这些都符合篇章中提到的原因,而只有(B)项从国外招收工程师是由此产生的结果。所以,只有(B)项正确。
4.该题所问的是:篇章中提到牛津和剑桥两所大学是想表明什么?从篇章中的 para.8,“British universities
have found it increasingly difficult to recruit well-qualified
undergraduates.Even Oxford and Cambridge failt on meet their quotas
in many engineering subjects.”,便可知选项(D)they can not fulfil their
recruitment quotas in engineering.即:它们不能完成招收工程学学生的数额,符合题意。正确答案为(D)。
5.该题属于概括题。要求考生能选择出概括篇章的最佳句子。选项(A)There should be further cooperation
between British Aerospace and Higher
Institutions.英国航空航天局应该与高等教育机构进一步合作,选项(C)British Higher Education has
recently been revaluated.近来已对英国高等教育进行了重新评估,选项 (D)British Engineering
education is severely criticized for its lack of
quality。即:英国工程教育由于质量不佳受到严肃批评,这些概括句子都不符合篇章的主旨,只有(B)Shortage of
engineers leads Bae to plan its own university.符合篇章要旨。所以正确答案为(B)。
考生做该部分试题的一般原则是:略读全文—领会大意—阅读选项—寻读对照—准确判断。或:阅读选项—略读全文—领会大意—寻读对照相馆—准确判断。
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