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[IELTS] Hackers target the home front

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本系列的模拟试题在难度、长度、题材、题型方面都与雅思考试近似的练习。这些练习,均以国外报刊上的文章为素材,按雅思阅读的题型,出题并提供答案及简单注释。进行雅思复习的同学可以在网页直接做题或将题目打印练习均可。

Hackers target the home front

1. One of the UK's leading banks has been forced to admit that organised hacking gangs have been targeting its executives. For the past year, Royal Bank of Scotland has been fighting systematic attempts to break into its computer systems from hackers who have sent personalised emails containing keyloggers to its senior management. This has included executives up to board level and is now the subject of a separate investigation by the Serious and Organised Crime Agency.

2. The hackers are homing in on the trend for people to work from home. The hackers make the assumption that the computers being used outside the work environment are more vulnerable than those protected by a corporate IT department.

Growing threat

3. For companies it is a growing threat as home working increases: a recent survey from the Equal Opportunities Commission found that more than 60% of the UK's population wants the option of flexible working.

4. And the hackers are employing increasingly sophisticated techniques. Each email they send is meticulously built to make it attractive to its target, who the criminals have carefully researched by trawling the internet for information. Once the email is composed, the malware is just as carefully designed: it is often modified to avoid detection by security software.

5. The keylogger contained in the email installs itself automatically and then collects details of logins and passwords from the unsuspecting user. This means that hackers can, using the usernames and passwords stolen by the keyloggers, connect to VPNs, or Virtual Private Networks, which many companies use to create an encrypted pathway into their networks.

6. Once inside a bank's network, the hackers can communicate directly with computers holding account information and manipulate funds.

7. Has this actually happened? In some cases sources claim that the login details of VPNs have been obtained and used though there has been no confirmation that any losses have occurred as a result. The attacks are not believed to have focused on RBS but to have been across the whole of the banking industry.

8. Royal Bank of Scotland said that the bank had suffered no losses as a result of the attacks and added: "RBS has extremely robust processes in place in order to protect our systems from fraud. Trojan email attacks are an industry-wide issue and are not isolated to a particular area or a particular bank."

9. It is not just banks that have been targets. Last year attempts were made to steal information from the Houses of Parliament using malicious email. Messagelabs, the company responsible for monitoring much of the email traffic of the government and big business for suspect software, said at the beginning of the year that criminals have been evolving more sophisticated techniques to attack corporate networks.

10. According to Mark Sunner, chief technology officer of Messagelabs, the number of malicious emails targeted at individuals has been increasing. Two years ago they were being seen once every two months, but now they are seeing one or two a day. This has been accompanied by an increase in quality in the creation of Trojans and spyware.

11. "The hackers are now aiming to take over computers, particularly those of home users. Some of the malicious software that we are routinely seeing for that purpose will have its own antivirus system built into it so that they can kill off the programs of their competitors."

Increased vigilance

12. Tony Neate, the head of Get Safe Online, a government-funded organisation set up to raise awareness among UK businesses of computer criminals, says: "There is now an attempt to target individuals within UK businesses - including the banking sector. What is happening is that crime is doing what it always does, which is look for the weakest link. Home working is where they perceive a weakness.

13. "This points to a need for increased vigilance and security by those working from home and by those responsible for letting them work from home. For home working to be effective, security needs to be as effective as if working in an office."

(667 words)

Questions 1-4Answer the questions below using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.

1. What do the hackers use to attack the computer system of the Royal Bank of Scotland?

2. Which word is most likely to be used by hackers to describe home computers?

3. What do the majority of people in the UK prefer?

4. How do hackers collect information so as to compose emails?

5. What do hackers obtain illegally to gain access to banks’ computer network?

Questions 5-12Complete the sentences below with words from the passage.

Use NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.

6. The use of login details of VPNs by criminals does not necessarily result in any ______________.

7. Royal Bank of Scotland claimed that they are not the only victim of ______________.

8. Corporate networks will be another target of hackers with improved _______________.

9. The attacks on individuals have been greatly increased within _______________.

10. With ________________, software used by criminals can eliminate its competing programs.

11. Home users are chosen as a target because they are considered as a __________ .

12. Get Safe Online is calling for an increase in _____________ to ensure safe home working.

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