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气候变化:一场我们必须打赢的比赛

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We face a new era of climate crisis. July 2019 is the hottest month on record, and we are on track for 2015 to 2019 to be the five hottest years in human history. The level of CO2 in the atmosphere is at its highest point in human history; climate-related devastations strike more often than ever, with droughts, hurricanes, heatwaves and landslides regularly attacking our planet, bringing high tolls and casualties, causing huge economic loss to countries and to individuals, particularly affecting the most vulnerable in societies. The latest report of UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific shows that natural disasters in the region are currently responsible for economic losses of up to US$675 billion annually and affecting close to 150 million people.
我们面临着气候危机的新时代。2019年7月是有记录以来最热的一个月,2015年至2019年有望成为人类历史上最热的5年。大气中的二氧化碳含量达到了人类历史上的最高点。与气候变化有关的自然灾害比以往任何时候都更加频繁,干旱、飓风、热浪和山体滑坡的频发造成了大范围人员伤亡,给许多国家和人民造成了巨大的经济损失,尤其是社会中最脆弱的群体受影响最为严重。联合国亚太经济社会委员会最新报告显示,该地区自然灾害造成的经济损失高达每年6750亿美元,影响近1.5亿人。


The clock is ticking. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, we need to collectively ensure that global temperature rise does not go beyond 1.5 degrees. This means we must reduce emissions by 45 percent by 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality by 2050. Such goals might seem too ambitious, but climate change is not a standalone issue that can be ignored given the profound implications it has for all countries and all peoples, including the young generation who will be living with the ever-increasing consequences of global warmings.
时间一分一秒地过去。政府间气候变化专门委员会(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 的报告表明,我们需要共同确保全球气温上升不超过1.5摄氏度。这意味着我们必须在2030年前减少45%的排放量,并在2050年前实现碳中和。这些目标似乎过于雄心勃勃,但考虑到气候变化对所有国家和人民所产生的深远影响,全球变暖日益严重所产生的后果年轻一代将首当其冲,我们绝不能将气候变化孤立开来,不能小觑其可能产生的后果和影响。


Faced with this reality, it is impossible to ignore that human development can only flourish if the natural world flourishes. This is the premise of the UN's Sustainable Development Goals that have become more urgent looking forward to the next decade. How can we as the global community work together as one?
面对气候变化的现实,我们需要清醒地认识到,人类的发展只有在自然界繁荣的情况下才能蓬勃发展。这是联合国可持续发展目标的前提,展望未来十年,这些目标变得更加紧迫。我们该如何作为一个国际社会共同努力?


To boost ambition, reinforce strong political will and encourage concrete actions to implement the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, the UN Secretary-General António Guterres will host the 2019 Climate Action Summit on 23 September during the UN General Assembly. The Summit will bring together governments, the private sector, civil society, local authorities and other international organizations to develop ambitious solutions in six areas: a global transition to renewable energy; sustainable and resilient infrastructures and cities; sustainable agriculture and management of forests and oceans; resilience and adaptation to climate impacts; and alignment of public and private finance with a 'net zero' economy. The message is clear: we need concrete, realistic plans to enhance countries' nationally determined contributions by 2020, in line with reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 45 per cent over the next decade, and to achieve 'net zero' emissions by 2050.
联合国秘书长安东尼奥•古特雷斯将于9月23日在联合国大会期间主持2019年气候行动峰会,以提振雄心,增强政治意愿,鼓励落实《巴黎气候变化协定》的具体行动。首脑会议将汇集各国政府、私营部门、民间社会、地方当局和其他国际组织,在六个领域制定雄心勃勃的解决办法: 全球范围内向可再生能源过渡;可持续和适应力强的基础设施和城市;可持续农业和森林及海洋管理;对气候影响的恢复力和适应能力; 公共和私人金融向“净零”经济看齐。峰会要传递的信息很明确: 我们需要具体、现实的计划,到2020年提高各国的自主贡献,在未来10年将温室气体排放量减少45%,到2050年实现 “净零”排放。


As the second largest economy in the world, China has played a critical part in committing to the Paris Agreement and its leadership and commitment is crucial in achieving the goals. The country has made remarkable progress in developing its green economy, with more than US$125 billion dollars’ investment in renewable energy in 2017. New renewable energy jobs in China now outnumber those created in the oil and gas industries. Under the 13th Five-Year Plan, China has already exceeded full three per cent of its target, to reduce energy intensity by 15 per cent. The country is also the global leader in the adoption of electric buses, with an estimation of 18% of China’s total bus fleet being electrified according to research from Bloomberg New Energy Finance. This demonstrates a significant increase in the importance of non-fossil fuel from previous five-year plan targets. The benefits China has reaped from fostering its renewable energy sector and the green economy also offer a prime counter-example to the mistaken belief that economic vitality and growth is incompatible with efforts to combat climate change.
作为世界第二大经济体,中国在履行《巴黎协定》方面发挥了重要作用,中国的领导和承诺对实现《巴黎协定》的目标至关重要。中国绿色经济发展取得了显著进展,2017年可再生能源投资超过1250亿美元。目前,中国可再生能源新增就业人数已超过石油和天然气行业。在十三五计划实施期间,中国已经超额完成目标的3%,降低能源强度15%。中国还是全球率先使用电动公交车的国家,根据彭博新能源财经研究估计,18%中国公交车汽车实现电气化。这表明,与之前的五年计划目标相比,非化石燃料的重要性显著提高。中国从发展可再生能源产业和绿色经济中获益的事实也为有些人错误地认为经济的活力和增长与应对气候变化不可兼得提供了一个主要的反例。


As the global challenge that does not respect national borders, climate change is an issue that requires solutions to be coordinated at the international level, with demand for all developed countries taking up greater responsibilities, and for developing countries moving toward low-carbon economy. In the meantime, as the world’s most populous country and one of the largest carbon emitters, China can play an even more vital role in tackling global climate change by maximizing its enormous potential for emission reduction and accelerating the current positive.
全球性挑战向来不受国境线的限制,气候变化这一全球性议题需要在国际层面协调解决方案,要求所有发达国家承担更大的责任,发展中国家向低碳经济迈进。作为世界上人口最多的国家和最大的碳排放国之一,中国可以在应对全球气候变化方面发挥更重要的作用,最大限度地发挥其巨大的减排潜力,进一步加快进度。


The UN is committed to working with the government of China, the private sector, NGOs, youth and other key stakeholders to support climate change reduction efforts in China, to raise awareness and build the next generation of climate leaders, as well as China’s growing support to other developing countries. Under initiatives such as the Belt and Road Initiative, UN and China can work closely together to make the best use of the investment in infrastructure to promote the transition from fossil fuel-intensive economy to green and low-carbon economy in developing countries and ensure the initiatives are in line with sustainable development goals. South-South Cooperation can also facilitate the exchanges of climate solutions - bringing China’s successful practices to developing world and customize the methodology to best serve the local context and needs. Considering the scale of China's commitments, the potential impact these global engagements will have is unparalleled. Therefore, the UN is ready to continue its partnership with China to ensure that an agenda of environmental sustainability, of climate change mitigation and resilience is placed first and foremost at the head of China's global development initiatives and investments.
联合国致力于与中国政府、私营部门、非政府组织、青年和其他主要利益攸关方一道,支持中国减少气候变化的努力,提高认识,培养下一代气候领导人,并不断加大对其他发展中国家的支持力度。在各项倡议的支持下,例如一带一路倡议,联合国和中国可以紧密合作,充分利用基础设施投资,促进发展中国家从化石燃料密集型的经济向绿色和低碳经济的过渡,确保项目符合可持续发展目标。南南合作也可以促进气候解决方案的交流,将中国的成功经验推广到发展中国家,并根据当地的实际情况和需求,因地制宜地调整方法论。考虑到中国承诺的规模,这些全球合作的潜在影响将是巨大的。因此,联合国愿继续与中国保持伙伴关系,确保将环境可持续性、减缓气候变化和提高适应能力置于中国全球发展倡议和投资的首位。


Climate change is running faster than we are and we need to have a much more ambitious approach in what we do in order to defeat climate change – as this is a race that we can and must win.
如果将气候行动比作一场比赛,那么气候变化现在的速度比我们快,我们需要更大的决心来应对这一挑战,因为这是一场我们能够而且必须获胜的比赛。

本文作者:联合国驻华协调员罗世礼(Nicholas Rosellini, UN Resident Coordinator in China)


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